Cabaret artist Fritz Grünbaum was one of the best-loved stars of the thriving Vienna theater scene in the early 20th century. An actor, song writer and director, he was known for his wit and intelligent observations, earning among his colleagues the nickname ‘The Philosopher’. He made no secret of his Jewishness, often referring to his heritage with self-deprecating humor, and once slapped an imperial officer for heckling him with anti-Semitic slogans during a performance. After the annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938, he was banned from appearing on stage. After an unsuccessful attempt to flee the country, and several months in hiding in Vienna, he was transported to the Dachau concentration camp, where he died in 1941.