The collections of the Jewish Museum Vienna include varying objects coming from many fields of artistic production: etchings, paintings, manuscripts, three-dimensional objects and textiles. All materials age and change due to environmental effects, use and storage, and it is the role of conservators to hold off that change and physically preserve this evidence of the past.

One of the priorities of the Jewish Museum Vienna are conservation and damage-preventing actions, from the careful transfer of etchings and manuscripts from acidic boxes to high-quality, aging-resistant materials, to the controlling of climatic conditions in exhibition and storage areas. All exhibits are cared for by in-house conservation specialists, a process which requires the examination of all exhibits and the design of mounts, frames, and sometimes supporting structures for three-dimensional objects. Objects that are to be sent on loan to another museum must also be checked, and their condition is recorded in a status report so as to establish any changes during the lending period.